Airport Chapels: Shifting from Denominational to Interfaith (2005)

    Approximately fifty years ago, the first airport chapel in the United States was built in Boston’s Logan International Airport. This chapel, along with the few others established at this time, was Catholic. Over the past few decades, as the religious landscape of America has changed, so has the orientation of these chapels. Now one can walk into almost any major U.S. airport and expect to find an interfaith space where people of all faiths are welcome to pray and worship. Most significantly, these chapels include features that cater specifically to the needs of Muslim worshippers. These...

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    Coming Together: College Multi-Faith Councils (2005)

    First Annual Gathering of College Multi-Faith Councils Convenes at Princeton University

    On February 17, 2005, over 90 students representing over 30 colleges and universities from across the country convened on Princeton University’s campus for the first annual national gathering of college multi-faith councils, “Coming Together: A Venture across Religious Boundaries.”

    Planned and led by students, “Coming Together” was created as a resource for students across the country to learn from one another about interfaith councils. Some students arrived...

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    South Asians in the US: India Abroad (2005)

    Table of Contents

    I. Introduction

    II. Achievements: Business, Entrepreneurship, and Philanthropy, Appointments, Awards, Government Involvement, Less Typical Successes

    III. US-Policy and India: US-India Relations, Immigration and Visas, NRI Involvement in India, India

    IV. Culture and Business: Religious Announcements, Current Affairs, Cultural Events and Festivals, News Announcements

    V. Conferences and Organizations: Medical/Science Organizations, AAPI and its Annual Convention, Other...

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    Sikh Participation in U.S. Civic Life (2006)


    Since they first arrived in the United States over a hundred years ago, Sikhs have been active participants in American life, holding positions in which they make decisions about the greater American good and supporting rights and causes they believe in, such as the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. They have become involved in nearly every aspect of American life, and many have taken a place in the public eye, such as the California Sikh who served as...

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    Air Force Academy Addresses "Challenges to Pluralism" (2005)

    Since July 2004, the United States Air Force Academy has been under various forms of investigation – ranging from internal surveys to the involvement of Pentagon officials – for charges of religious discrimination. From these investigations, it is alleged that a "stridently evangelical" agenda may extend back to 1993 and is best described by one analysis as a "systemic and pervasive religious bias and intolerance at the highest levels of the Academy command structure" which challenge both the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment.


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    Information on Global Religious Distribution (2005)

    United States Department of State


    Country Background Notes

    Quick statistics on the religious distribution, population, and ethnic breakdown in every country in the world is available on the website for the U.S. State Department. These breakdowns are available on a regional basis as well as an alphabetical country by country basis under the Background Notes section of the website, available at: An example of the Background Notes for Indonesia is contained in Appendix 1. (http://www.... Read more about Information on Global Religious Distribution (2005)

    Sikh Americans' Political Roles after September 11, 2001 (2004)


    The objective of this research was to understand the political roles of Sikh Americans and the various challenges to Sikh identity from post-9/11 hate crimes. Some of the difficulties faced by Sikhs are addressed along with some of the reactions to post-9/11 hate crimes. This study investigated the actions taken by Sikh leaders, from the United States and the Punjab, towards hate crimes as well as their efforts to create more awareness about Sikhism and the Sikh identity. The mutual system of Sikh Americans and Sikh leaders in the Punjab is also...

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    Wiccan Invocation: A Canary in the Mineshaft of the United States’ Non-Establishment of Religion (2004)

    New 2005 developments in this case are written up in a separate research report, Wiccan Invocation: Update 2005.

    In the mining industry, at one time canaries were lowered into mineshafts to test the air quality. If the canary lived, the air was sufficient to support the lives of the workers who then entered the mines. In the United States, cases of Wiccans pursuing religious rights can be...

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    Contextualization and Periodization of Muslim Civic and Political Activities in Portland, Oregon (2004)


    Muslims in the United States were for many decades all but ignored socially, and totally ignored politically. But events of the past forty years have been witness to a increased interest in the religion of Islam and its adherents. Large numbers of immigrants from Muslim countries increased the size of the American Muslim community. The Persian Gulf War brought Muslims into the media spotlight. Finally, the events of September 11th, 2001 and the destruction of the World Trade Center made popular sentiment turn against Muslims, and paved the way toward...

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    Sufi Orders in Portland (2006)

    Those who call themselves Sufis in Portland are a kaleidoscopic mix of observing Muslims, Muslims who are not strictly observant, and those who outright reject any connection between Sufism and Islam. This mix reflects Sufism in the United States as a whole, where Sufism as a form of spirituality has become partially, and in some cases totally, disassociated from Islam. (See Professor Alan Godlas's categorization of Sufis in the United States. Interestingly enough, this disassociation can vary even among those who claim to belong to...

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    Religious Diversity and the Workplace (2014)

    This paper was prepared as the basis for a presentation by Pluralism Project senior staff at the professional development workshop entitled " Managing Religious Diversity in the Workplace: An Exploration of Theory and Practice," held in conjunction with the American Academy of Management's annual conference New Orleans, Louisiana, August 7, 2004. It was updated in May 2014.

    The Pluralism Project at Harvard University documents the religious diversity of the United States, with particular attention to the Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh and other minority...

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    Religious Discrimination in the Military (2004)

    If President George Bush’s comment in Sept. 2001 that the War on Terror was an American “crusade” led to an international controversy on the possible anti-Islamic undertones of American foreign policy, then in 2003-2004 these concerns have only increased. This year three high profile scandals brought international attention to possible tensions between the U.S. military and Islam: the General Boykin controversy, the Abu Ghraib prison scandal, and the arrest of prominent Muslim militairy chaplain Capt. James Yee.

    The General Boykin Controversy...

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    Religious Symbols in the American Public Square (2004)

    Judge Roy Moore and the Ten Commandments

    The role of religion in the public square made national headlines in 2003-2004 as Judge Roy Moore, soon known as the “Ten Commandments Judge,” refused to obey official court orders to remove a 2.6 ton monument of the Ten Commandments from the front of the Alabama courthouse. Moore was sued on October 30, 2001 by the ACLU of Alabama and the Americans United for Separation of Church and State, who argued that the statue amounted to an official state endorsement of religion. Moore countered that the monument honored the...

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    Controversy over the Headscarf (2004)

    The French Ban

    In December 2003, French President Jacques Chirac announced that Muslim headscarves, Jewish skullcaps, and large crosses were to be banned in French public schools, arguing that he intended to uphold the principle of secularism, which is the “pillar of the French Constitution.” Though the decree was directed towards Muslim, Jewish, and Christian religious articles, critics argued that it specifically targeted France’s growing Muslim immigrant community. Chirac’s announcement set off an international controversy...

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