Humulus lupulus L. or Hops

Humulus lupulus L. Cannabinaceae. Common hops. Information from James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops

Description


Humulus lupulus L. is a perennial herbaceous vine with horizontal and vertical roots. The horizontal roots spread out at depth of 20 to 30 cm and give rise to fibrous roots in the upper layers of soil. The vertical roots develop downward to a depth of 152 cm with a spread of 183 to 244 cm and no fibrous roots.

The stems are annual, slender, climbing, up to 9 m in length, often with stout hooked hairs. The leaves are opposite, cordate, 3 to 5 lobed, margins serrate, petioles slightly fleshy with stout hooked hairs.

The plants are dioecious with unisexual flowers on separate plants, but occasionally monoecious plants occur, in which case male or female flowers are often infertile. Humulus lupulus L. is wind-pollinated. The female inflorescence are cone-like, 2.5 to 5 cm long and the male flowers form in long racemes.

Distribution & Ecology


The plants are native to Europe and western Asia and currently cultivated in North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia and have become naturalized in many areas. Hops are quite hardy if other growing conditions are good and can live for 10-20 years. When dormant, they withstand freezing, however, a severe frost will kill young, tender vines in spring.

Hops range from Boreal Wet through Subtropical Dry Forest Life Zones and are reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 3.1 to 13.7 cm (mean of 34 cases = 7.4) and annual temperature of 5.6 to 21.3 degrees C. They are suitable for temperate climates between latitudes 35 to 51N and 34 to 43S, with mean summer temperatures of 16 to 18 degrees C.

 

1576
Images reproduced from the pamphlet:
Scot, Reginald, 1538?-1599.
A Perfite Platforme of a Hoppe Garden : and necessarie instructions for the making and mayntenaunce thereof, with notes and rules for reformation of all abuses, commonly practised therein, very necessarie and expedient for all men to haue, which in any wise haue to doe with hops.
Imprinted at London : By Henrie Denham, dwelling in Pater noster Rovve, at the signe of the Starre, 1576.
Houghton Library STC 21867 [1578 edition]

Reproduced in:
Bickerdyke, John, 1858-1933.
The curiosities of ale & beer : an entertaining history
London : Spring Books, 1965.
Botany Economic Botany TP577 .B35x 1965

 

Hortus Sanitatis (1491)

1491
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Ortus sanitatis. De herbis et plantis. De animalibus et reptilibus. De avibus et volatilibus. De piscibus et natatilibus...
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[Herbarius] Incipit Tractatus de virtutibus herbarum (1509)

1509
[Herbarius] Incipit Tractatus de virtutibus herbarum.
[Venetiis, Impressum per J. Rubeum & Bernardiu fratres Vercellenses, 1509]

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De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes (1542)

1542
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Hundreth Pointes of Good Husbandrie (1586)

1586
Tusser, Thomas
Hundreth Pointes of Good Husbandrie
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Kreutterbuch desz Hochgelehrten... (1600)

1600
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Mattioli, Pietro Andrea, 1500-1577.
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1654
Source
The Country-mans Recreation, or, The art of Planting, Graffing, and Gardening in three books : the first declaring divers waies of planting, and graffing, and the best times of year ... the second theateth of the hop-garden, with necessary instructions for the making and the maintenance thereof ... with some directions for tabaco : whereunto is added, The expert gardener, containing divers necessary and rare secrets belonging to that art ... : hereunto is likewise added The art of angling.
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COVER

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Botanica in Originali (1759)

1759
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Kniphof, Johann Hieronymus, 1704-1763.
Botanica in Originali, seu Herbarium Vivum, in quo plantarum tam indigenarum quam exoticarum peculiari quadam operosaque enchiresi atramento impressorio obductarum nominibusqve suis ad methodum illustrivm nostri aevi botanicorum Linnaei et Ludwigii insignitarum elegantissima ectypa exhibentur / opera et studio Ioannis Godofredi Trampe, typographi halensis. Centvr. I [-XII].
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Ectypa Plantarum Ratisbonensium (1788)

1788
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Hoppe, David Heinrich, 1760-1846.
Ectypa Plantarum Ratisbonensium : oder, Abdrucke Derjenigen Pflanzen, welche um Regensburg wild wachsen
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Icones Plantarum Medicinalium (1790)

1790
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Icones Plantarum Medicinalium.
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Male

Female

English Botany (1797)

1797
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Sowerby, James, 1757-1822.
English Botany; or, Coloured Figures of British Plants, with their essential characters, synonyms, and places of growth. To which will be added, occasional remarks.
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Afbeeldingen der Artsenygewassen... (1800)

1800
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Oskamp, D. L.
Afbeeldingen der Artsenygewassen met Derzelvernederduitsche en Latynschebeschryvingen.
Amsterdam. 1796-1800.

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Male

Female

Flora Batava (1807)

1807
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Kops, Jan, 1765-1849.
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Male

Female

Svensk botanik (1807)

1807
Source
Palmstruchoch, J.W.
Svensk botanik
Stockholm : Carl Delen, 1802-1843.

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ILLUSTRATION

Botanisches Handbuch der Mehresten theils... (1808)

1808
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Schkuhr, Christian, 1741-1811.
Botanisches Handbuch der Mehresten theils in Deutschland Wildwachsenden :theils Auslandischen in Deutschland unter Freyem Himmel Ausdauernden Gewachse
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1809
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Flore Pittoresque des Environs de Paris (1812)

1812
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Flore Pittoresque des Environs de Paris
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Flore Medicale (1817)

1817
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Flore Medicale
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1821
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American Medical Botany : being a collection of the native medicinal plants of the United States, containing their botanical history and chemical analysis, and properties and uses in medicine, diet and the arts, with coloured engravings ...
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Getreue Darstellung und Beschreibung... (1822)

1822
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1828
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Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840
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Medical botany (1832)

1832
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Abbildung und Beschreibung aller in der Pharmacopae... (1833)

1833
Source
Schlechtendal, D. F. L. von (Diedrich Franz Leonhard von), 1794-1866.
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1834
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Stephenson, John, 1790-1864.
Medical botany, or, Illustrations and descriptions of the medicinal plants of the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin pharmacopoeias : comprising a popular and scientific account of poisonous vegetables indigenous to Great Britain.
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Flora von Thuringen...(1836)

1836
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1840
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Baxter, W. (William), d. 1871.
British Phaenogamous Botany, or, Figures and descriptions of the genera of British flowering plants
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Florigraphia Britannica (1847)

1847
Source
Deakin, Richard, 1809-1873.
Florigraphia Britannica : or, engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain.
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The American Flora (1848)

1848
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The American Flora, or history of plants and wild flowers containing a systematic and general description, natural history, chemical and medical properties of over six thousand plants.
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1849
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Prof. Dr. Thome's Flora von Deutschland... (1886)

1886
Source
Thome, Otto W. (Otto Wilhelm), 1840-
Prof. Dr. Thome's Flora von Deutschland, Osterreich und der Schweiz in wort und Bild fur Schule und Haus.
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Unsere Heilpflanzen in Bild und Wort fur jedermann (1893)

1893
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Useful plants of Japan (1895)

1895
Source
Yuyo shokubutsu zusetsu. English. Selections.
Useful plants of Japan : described and illustrated.
Tokyo : Agricultural Society of Japan, 1895.

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Wild fruits of the country-side (1902)

1902
Source
Hulme, F. Edward (Frederick Edward), 1841-1909.
Wild fruits of the country-side.
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J. Sturms Flora von Deutschland (1905)

1905
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Sturm, Jacob, 1771-1848.
J. Sturms Flora von Deutschland in Abbildungen nach der Natur.
Stuttgart : K. G. Lutz, 1900-1907.

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Somoku-Dzusetsu (1907)

1907
Source
Iinuma, Yokusai.
Somoku-Dzusetsu : or, an iconography of plants indigenous to cultivated in, or introduced into Nippon (Japan)
Tokyo :Seibido 1907-1912.

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